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Conseguenze del caos climatico e crisi del sistema politico, economico e normativo della comunità industriale globalizzata

In tale scenario complesso, il caos climatico mette dunque naturalmente in discussione il sistema politico, economico e normativo della comunità industriale globalizzata, fondata sull’utilizzo dei combustibili fossili, e nel contempo minaccia, già oggi, l’esistenza stessa delle popolazioni non dipendenti da questi ultimi.

La crescente intensità ed imprevedibilità del sistema climatico implica, in effetti, gravi conseguenze, sia nei paesi industrializzati sia nei cosiddetti paesi in via di sviluppo.

L’estrema vulnerabilità delle popolazioni del sud del mondo, già provate dalla crisi alimentare, dalla penuria di acqua potabile e dalla carenza di strutture igienico-sanitarie adeguate, ne diminuisce drasticamente la resilienza climatica, ovvero la capacità di adattamento alle sollecitazioni del clima. Sono proprio coloro che già si trovano in difficoltà grave, dunque, a subire gli effetti maggiori del caos climatico, sia in termini di destabilizzazione dei sistemi di sostentamento, sia in quelli del numero di vittime e di migrazioni forzate. Basti pensare che, negli ultimi cinque anni, più del 96% dei decessi collegati ai disastri naturali si è verificato nei paesi in via di sviluppo. A tale percentuale si somma l’aumento delle vittime di malattie endemiche tropicali come la malaria, la quale si manifesta ad altitudini sino a pochi anni fa ritenute sicure e pertanto sedi di grandi insediamenti umani.

Il numero di profughi ambientali, per lo più provenienti dalle aree più povere del pianeta è anch’esso in continuo aumento e supera quello dei profughi di guerra. Secondo un recente rapporto1 del Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) della Columbia University di New York, le popolazioni che dipendono dal sistema acquifero dei ghiacciai himalayani sono esposte a inondazioni e smottamenti nel breve periodo, e a siccità e desertificazione nel lungo periodo. Le grandi megalopoli nelle zone costiere sui delta dei grandi fiumi, quali il Gange, il Mekong e il Nilo rischiano la migrazione forzata a causa dell’innalzamento dei mari: 23 milioni di persone circa nel caso dell’innalzamento di un metro e circa 34 milioni se il livello dal mare salisse di 2 metri. Per lo stesso motivo, gli abitanti degli arcipelaghi più bassi sul livello del mare, quali ad esempio le Maldive e le isole Tuvalu, potrebbero essere tra breve costretti ad abbandonare le proprie terre.

1 Il rapporto è scaricabile dal sito http://www.ciesin.columbia.edu/documents/clim-migr-report-june09_final.pdf

A cura di Alice Benessia, Maria Bucci, Simone Contu, Vincenzo Guarnieri.


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