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Crisi economico-finanziaria, responsabilità giuridica

Nel mondo industriale globalizzato, il crescente ed imprevedibile numero di eventi catastrofici sta determinando una crisi del settore assicurativo, oggi la più grande impresa globale in termini di fatturato. Basti pensare che nei soli Stati Uniti i danni da catastrofi naturali sono cresciuti dai 100 milioni di dollari all’anno negli anni 50, ai 6 miliardi di dollari negli anni 90. Nel 2004 si è registrato un totale di danni pari a 145 miliardi di dollari con richieste di risarcimento pari a 45 miliardi. Nel 2005, l’anno dell’uragano Katrina, si è passati a 200 miliardi di perdite con oltre 70 miliardi di risarcimento. Oltre ai danni economici ad infrastrutture e sistemi di allevamento ed agricoltura, altri danni si manifestano nel mercato finanziario. Le grandi aziende assicurative infatti sono sempre più in difficoltà nel far fronte alle domande di risarcimento e si trovano costrette a mettere in vendita enormi quantità di titoli, creando squilibri finanziari su ampia scala. Il collasso complessivo del sistema assicurativo globale potrebbe in questo senso comportare un crollo economico finanziario di proporzioni inaudite.

L’impatto della crisi climatica sul sistema assicurativo si fa sentire non soltanto con l’aumento degli eventi estremi e della loro imprevedibilità, ma anche, contemporaneamente, con il moltiplicarsi dei risarcimenti legali, dovuti ad un aumento delle vertenze climatiche a carico delle multinazionali, tutte assicurate, citate in giudizio sia per mancata osservanza delle norme sulle emissioni, sia per danni climatici. Il concetto stesso di responsabilità giuridica è messo in discussione nel contesto della crisi climatica, poiché, data la complessità del problema, i nessi di causalità sono di difficile attribuzione. La compensazione dei danni climatici resta dunque una questione aperta di grande interesse1.

A cura di Alice Benessia, Maria Bucci, Simone Contu, Vincenzo Guarnieri.

1 In un interessante articolo su Nature comparso nel 2004 (M. R. Allen e R. Lord, The blame game, Nature online, December 2004) si discute ad esempio la possibile attribuzione di responsabilità giuridica dei paesi con il maggior impatto sul clima, per le vittime della grande ondata di caldo che ha colpito l’Europa nel 2003 e che ha causato più di 35.000 vittime.

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