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Gaia e le scelte politiche

Che tipo di indicazioni fornisce all’uomo tale caratteristica della vita? Abbiamo già notato come rispetto alla storia del pianeta, la specie umana sia una specie molto giovane.

Dalle precedenti considerazioni basate sulle evidenze scientifiche è stato possibile proporre un’interpetazione filosofica secondo la quale l’uomo si trova oggi in una fase di crisi “giovanile” (si può paragonare a una fase adolescenziale), dalla quale può uscirne solo come hanno fatto tutte le altre specie in passato, cioè maturando e trasformandosi in una specie basata su rapporti di tipo cooperativo (Sahtouris 1991). Tale “maturazione” corrisponde a quella che diversi studiosi definiscono come “transizione verso la sostenibilità” (Meadows et al. 2004). L’uomo è stato protagonista di una prima grande transizione, quando da cacciatore e raccoglitore nomade è diventato un agricolture e allevatore stanziale, circa 10.000 anni fa, e di una seconda grande transizione, quella industriale avvenuta nel Settecento.

Se da un parte è vero che entrambe le transizioni non hanno necessariamente coinvolto tutti i membri della nostra specie, dall’altra è altrettanto vero che è solo la componente coinvolta (soprattutto nella seconda transizione) quella responsabile dei problemi globali presenti e delle eventuali soluzioni. Una maggiore consapevolezza del contesto storico e spaziale nel quale si è sviluppata la vita sul pianeta e del modo in cui si è inserita quella dell’uomo, dovrebbe stimolare una modalità più “saggia” di concepire la società, l’economia, la politica e, in generale, il tipo di rapporti tra gli individui della nostra specie e con il resto del pianeta. Guardare la natura (anche attraverso la scienza, con tutti i suoi limiti) per trovare ispirazione nelle scelte etiche da compiere a livello globale, significa anche tornare a non considerare l’etica come un aspetto legato soltanto alla religione.

A cura di Alice Benessia, Maria Bucci, Simone Contu, Vincenzo Guarnieri.

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