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I limiti della conoscenza scientifica

In questa situazione, la ‘scienza’ non è più in grado di fornire un singolo quadro certo, neutrale ed esaustivo alla politica e dunque entrano in crisi i presupposti impliciti del contratto di fiducia tra cittadini e decisori. Si pensi, ad esempio, al caso del cambiamento climatico o ai cambiamenti nella percezione del pubblico rispetto alla sicurezza alimentare, altra tipica area di interazione tra scienza e regolamentazione politica, insorti con la crisi della sindrome BSE, la cosiddetta ‘mucca pazza’, dal 1986 in poi.

Quali soluzioni si prospettano per uscire dall’impasse? Nel prendere atto che la sperimentazione diretta sul nostro (unico) pianeta implica necessariamente la presenza di incertezza, di ignoranza e di indeterminatezza nei modi di conoscere e prevedere della scienza, sin qui ritenuti infallibili, siamo forzati a ridiscutere il rapporto di privilegio elitario di cui il metodo scientifico ha goduto sin dalle sue origini nell’indirizzare l’azione politica. Ciò significa riaprire il dialogo democratico nei processi decisionali non tanto e non solo come esigenza etica e politica, ma soprattutto come necessità cognitiva: la prospettiva della scienza può ancora essere necessaria, ma non è più sufficiente.

A cura di Alice Benessia, Maria Bucci, Simone Contu, Vincenzo Guarnieri.

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