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Il concetto di “sistema socio-ecologico”

È possibile compiere un’analisi della situazione energetica attraverso una prospettiva che impiega il concetto di “sistema socio-ecologico”. Tale concetto è stato introdotto e sviluppato verso la fine del XX secolo e rappresenta l’accoppiamento tra il sistema socio-economico (la società con l’insieme dei suoi aspetti culturali) ed il particolare sistema ecologico/naturale con il quale esso interagisce. In questa interazione la società preleva delle risorse e provoca delle modificazioni nella natura che possono essere intenzionali (si parla in questo caso di “colonizzazione”) o non intenzionali. Il sistema socio-ecologico è attraversato da flussi di materia ed energia, e tende a conservare le sue proprietà mostrando una certa resistenza alle perturbazioni esterne (resilienza[1]). Può essere quindi studiato come se fosse un essere vivente, come tale caratterizzato da un certo “regime sociometabolico” (Kowalski 1997).

Nella storia dell’umanità si possono riconoscere alcuni fondamentali regimi sociometabolici. Nonostante le numerose civiltà che si sono sviluppate sul pianeta abbiano manifestato caratteristiche particolari dovute alle specifiche condizioni biogeografiche e storiche, alcune proprietà sistemiche fondamentali (relative al modo in cui hanno utilizzato e modificato la natura) sono state comuni. Tali proprietà rappresentano il regime sociometabolico di un particolare sistema socio-ecologico. Secondo questa prospettiva, l’elemento determinante che si trova alla base di un qualsiasi regime sociometabolico è il suo sistema energetico. Si può osservare che i sistemi socio-ecologici che condividono la stessa fonte di energia e le stesse tecnologie in grado di convertirla e utilizzarla, condividono anche molte altre caratteristiche fondamentali come l’uso delle risorse, le proprietà degli insediamenti demografici, il modo in cui viene impiegato il tempo e il lavoro umano, le istituzioni e i sistemi di comunicazione (Krausmann 2008).

A cura di Alice Benessia, Maria Bucci, Simone Contu, Vincenzo Guarnieri.

[1] La resilienza designa, nel suo significato originario, la capacità di un materiale di resistere ad una sollecitazione impulsiva. Mutuato in ambito sociale indica la capacità di un gruppo o una comunità di adattarsi ai cambiamenti repentini o traumatici.

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