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L’apertura democratica europea: il Principio di Precauzione

Una prima presa d’atto dell’effettiva mancanza di piena conoscenza nella quale la politica si trova a decidere in materia di problemi socio-ambientali è costituita dall’enunciazione, nella Dichiarazione di Rio su Ambiente e Sviluppo del 1992, del Principio Precauzionale. Nel Principio 15 si legge:

Laddove vi siano minacce di danni seri o irreversibili, la mancanza di un’assoluta certezza scientifica non dovrà essere usata come motivo per ritardare il ricorso a misure economicamente efficaci per la prevenzione del deterioramento ambientale (Commission of the European Communities 2000).

In questo modo, si introduce l’idea che la scienza può non essere in grado di produrre una conoscenza certa ed esaustiva e qualora provvisoriamente questo accada, si introduce un principio politico secondo il quale è meglio rinunciare ad un possibile progresso tecnologico, e quindi perdere delle occasioni di investimento, piuttosto che investire e poi, in caso di errore non previsto e non prevedibile, trovarsi di fronte a danni non rimediabili.

Non conta più, dunque, soltanto il criterio di verità della scienza, ma si introduce una soglia etica a livello politico – normativo che comporta l’accettabilità o meno di un dato rischio. In effetti, nella Comunicazione della Commissione Europea sul Principio di Precauzione del 2000, il principio precauzionale diviene un principio di responsabilità politica, laddove si stabilisce che “alcuni tipi di rischio sono inconsistenti rispetto all’alto livello di protezione scelto dalla Comunità Europea” (Communication of the European Commission, 2000).

A cura di Alice Benessia, Maria Bucci, Simone Contu, Vincenzo Guarnieri.

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