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La crisi delle procedure decisionali moderne

L’ideale moderno secondo il quale di fronte ad un problema socio-ambientale era sufficiente chiedere agli scienziati ‘esperti’ per poi applicare, semplicemente e automaticamente, la decisione più razionale, non è più applicabile nella gran parte dei casi: ci troviamo di fronte a pareri controversi, ugualmente legittimi e documentati, non soltanto sulle possibili proposte di soluzione, ma anche sull’entità e sulla natura stessa delle questioni da gestire. Il modello decisionale moderno per il quale dal ‘vero’ della scienza discende necessariamente il ‘giusto’ della politica ha funzionato bene fino a che la ricerca scientifica e l’impresa tecnologica si svolgevano nel contesto controllato, semplificato e reversibile dei laboratori. Oggi non è più così. Nel corso dell’ultimo secolo si è assistito ad una progressiva e rapida estensione della capacità della scienza e della tecnologia di modificare, spostare e trasformare materia ed energia sul pianeta, in tempi sempre più brevi. In termini generali, siamo di fronte ad un aumento esponenziale della potenza di interazione tra tecnoscienza, ambiente e società. L’alta potenza si manifesta nella fase di implementazione, che richiede tipicamente una grande concentrazione di materia e/o energia e di ingenti investimenti finanziari per modificare, spostare a sua volta grandi quantità di materia e/o energia. Sono esempi di tecnologie ad alta potenza sia quelle estensive, che spesso determinano lo spostamento di popolazioni intere, costrette ad abbandonare un territorio per lasciar spazio alle cosiddette ‘grandi opere’, sia quelle intensive, quali ad esempio le biotecnologie e le più recenti nanotecnologie, che prevedono la manipolazione e il controllo di materia ed energia concentrate.

A cura di Alice Benessia, Maria Bucci, Simone Contu, Vincenzo Guarnieri

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