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La crisi strutturale del sistema alimentare

Come nel caso di altre risorse fondamentali quali acqua ed energia, anche il problema della denutrizione e malnutrizione globale non è dovuto ad un’effettiva scarsità di risorse alimentari, ma ad una loro iniqua distribuzione e ad un degrado della loro qualità. Oggi si produce più cibo pro-capite al mondo di quanto sia mai stato prodotto in passato eppure una persona su sette soffre la fame. Accanto al miliardo di persone che soffrono di inedia[1], un miliardo soffre di malattie connesse al soprappeso, quali diabete e disturbi cardio-circolatori. L’impennata dei prezzi dei beni agricoli di sussistenza avvenuta nel 2008 e la crisi economico-finanziaria che stiamo attraversando hanno determinato un ulteriore inasprimento del problema. Oggi, i tre quarti della popolazione mondiale rischiano la fame non a causa della carestia ma del carovita. La crisi alimentare è strutturale e non congiunturale.

In un recente rapporto della International assessment of agriculture science and technology for development (IAASTD 2008) promosso dalla Banca Mondiale e dalle Nazioni Unite e prodotto da più di quattrocento scienziati, si legge:

I governi e le parti in causa devono ripensare il sistema alimentare attuale, che non è sostenibile né a livello sociale né a livello ambientale. Il sistema attuale ha portato alla diffusione della fame, della malnutrizione e dell’obesità. Sta depauperando le risorse naturali e accelerando il cambiamento climatico. Abbiamo il dovere di rivedere le nostre scelte passate.

Prima di entrare nel merito delle nuove vie da seguire, riflettiamo su alcune delle “scelte passate” da rivedere, ovvero su alcuni dei fattori che determinano la crisi strutturale.

A cura di Alice Benessia, Maria Bucci, Simone Contu, Vincenzo Guarnieri.

[1] Secondo le ultime stime della FAO nel rapporto del 2009  “State of food insecurity in the world” si è giunti ad 1.02 miliardi di persone in stato di denutrizione cronica.

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