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La sostenibilità socio-ambientale

Ad oggi il concetto di sviluppo sostenibile, emerso in tutta la sua controversia, è stato superato e sostituito dal concetto di sostenibilità socio-ambientale. Ciò per il fatto che le argomentazioni già descritte, quali la scarsità delle risorse, la perdita di biodiversità, le profonde disuguaglianze sociali hanno dimostrato la contraddizione esistente tra il termine “sviluppo” ed il termine “sostenibile”. Si preferisce quindi descrivere la problematica in un’accezione più ampia che trascuri l’aspetto di sviluppo per concentrarsi invece sugli ambiti cui si accennava precedentemente.

Da tali principi discendono ambiti differenti di applicazione del concetto di sostenibilità, che possono trovare una loro giusta collocazione esclusivamente in una rappresentazione interdisciplinare e fortemente interconnessa della realtà. Così, quindi, la sostenibilità economica potrebbe essere rappresentata da investimenti pubblici e privati atti a garantire il mantenimento di una stabilità fra gli input e gli output dei sistemi viventi e sostenere una resa del capitale naturale (per esempio se abbiamo dei soldi in banca e vogliamo conservarli nel tempo, dobbiamo basare le nostre spese esclusivamente sugli interessi che la banca ci dà o sulle nostre entrate annue, senza andare ad intaccare il capitale di base), e la sostenibilità socio-ambientale, prendendo atto dei limiti ecologici relativi all’assorbimento di rifiuti ed inquinanti, dovrebbe puntare ad una razionalizzazione dei consumi e riduzione dell’impatto ambientale da ottenersi tramite sforzi della tecnologia miranti ad aumentare l’efficienza dei processi produttivi e ad ottenere cicli più “puliti”, e così anche ad un mantenimento della biodiversità presente in natura. Seguendo lo stesso ragionamento il controllo dell’incremento demografico, secondo il concetto della massima capacità di carico dell’ecosistema terrestre in relazione ad un dato modello di vita, potrebbe rappresentare la sostenibilità demografica, la giusta distribuzione delle risorse naturali e delle ricchezze economiche fra nazioni sviluppate ed in via di sviluppo la sostenibilità sociale e il rispetto delle diversità culturali, la valorizzazione dei differenti e variegati patrimoni culturali presenti a livello mondiale ed il superamento della considerazione del modello occidentale come il migliore da perseguire potrebbero rappresentare una sostenibilità culturale.

Da ciò, come detto sopra., emerge il fortissimo carattere interdisciplinare della sostenibilità, che ci fa anche comprendere come vada ben oltre il discorso prettamente ambientale e la necessità di impegno soprattutto politico in grado di garantire il raggiungimento di equilibri migliori in ogni sfera del sociale.

A cura di Alice Benessia, Maria Bucci, Simone Contu, Vincenzo Guarnieri.

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