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Le grandi narrazioni implicite

Creare le strutture di partecipazione è una condizione necessaria ma non sufficiente per democratizzare effettivamente la conoscenza e l’expertise nei processi decisionali: aumentare il numero di voci può non portare di per sé a decisioni più sagge. In effetti, il rischio di estendere la partecipazione in sé è l’irrigidimento di alcune posizioni predefinite, oppure, all’estremo opposto, la decostruzione indefinitamente profonda del processo decisionale. È necessario, dunque, riflettere su come si canalizza l’immaginazione collettiva, come si stimolano la consapevolezza pubblica, il pensiero critico e creativo.

In un rapporto recente su scienza e governance per la Commissione Europea (Wynne B. et al. 2007) gli Autori riflettono sull’esistenza di narrazioni condivise che plasmano l’immaginazione collettiva e determinano un set di ‘dati di fatto’ sulla base dei quali si fonda il processo politico.

Nel mondo delle pratiche politiche, le narrazioni […] definiscono implicitamente gli orizzonti dell’azione possibile e accettabile, disegnano e impongono classificazioni, distinguono le questioni dalle non-questioni, gli attori dai non-attori. […] In molti aspetti chiave, le nostre istituzioni e le nostre modalità di scienza sono inquadrate da abitudini accumulate, immaginazioni e routines delineate da tali grandi narrazioni, le quali possono esser state valide in precedenza, ma con il cambiare dei tempi invitano nuove riflessioni e revisioni (European Commission 2007, p.73).

Una delle narrazioni più generali, o grande narrazione (master narrative), è quella del ‘mito del progresso’, in cui si associa il progresso sociale allo sviluppo tecnologico. Un’altra grande narrazione, molto influente e connessa al mito del progresso, è quella che individua nella moderna razionalità scientifica un tipo privilegiato di conoscenza, intrinsecamente più valido ed efficace di qualunque altra pratica culturale nell’interagire con la natura (Leach e Fairhead 2003). Il potere normativo di tali narrazioni si fonda sul meccanismo del selezionare ciò che conta come ‘prova’ e considerare ciò che non si vede come non necessario.

A cura di Alice Benessia, Maria Bucci, Simone Contu, Vincenzo Guarnieri.


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