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Lo sviluppo sostenibile: nascita di un termine

Il concetto di sviluppo sostenibile si afferma, per la prima volta, con la pubblicazione del rapporto “Our Common Future” (1987), ad opera della Commissione Mondiale sull’Ambiente e lo Sviluppo delle Nazioni Unite (nota anche come Commissione Brundtland, dal nome del Primo Ministro Norvegese che la presiedette, promossa nel 1983 dalle Nazioni Unite). In questo rapporto, sottolineando l’eccesso di consumi delle nazioni ricche e la crescente povertà di tutte le altre popolazioni mondiali, l’egoismo di ogni singola popolazione che portava a combattere per la propria ricchezza e prosperità senza porre attenzione all’impatto esercitato sugli altri e sull’ambiente circostante, si definiva “sostenibile” uno sviluppo che permettesse di soddisfare ai bisogni delle generazioni presenti senza compromettere la possibilità di un uguale comportamento delle generazioni future.

La Conferenza di Rio de Janeiro gli diede l’affermazione a livello internazionale. L’Agenda XXI divenne, infatti, un concreto strumento di azione e verifica dei comportamenti a carattere nazionale, regionale e sub-regionale di molti paesi.

Per la prima volta, con l’affermarsi del concetto di sviluppo sostenibile, lo sguardo spazia sull’intero contesto politico e socio-economico e non soltanto sui singoli effetti/cause di degrado delle componenti ambientali. E’ un grande salto in avanti nell’analisi della problematica ambientale, perché ci si rende conto della stretta relazione fra discorsi di equità sociale, rispetto dell’ambiente, sviluppo economico e benessere sociale, stabilità politica e convivenza pacifica fra le nazioni.

Gli obiettivi principali dello sviluppo sostenibile, così come definiti in quella prima occasione, dovrebbero, quindi, essere:

  • l’integrità dell’ecosistema, vista come conservazione dell’ambiente naturale, da perseguire attraverso l’eliminazione delle cause di possibili trasformazioni, strutturali e irreversibili, dovute all’azione umana;

  • l’efficienza economica intesa in senso ecologico, cioè basata sull’utilizzo di risorse rinnovabili ed il lento abbandono di quelle non rinnovabili;

  • il principio di equità sociale, sia all’interno di una stessa generazione, sia rispetto alle generazioni future (rispettivamente equità intragenerazionale ed equità intergenerazionale). Ciò equivarrebbe a dare allo sviluppo sostenibile una prospettiva di lungo periodo.

A cura di Alice Benessia, Maria Bucci, Simone Contu, Vincenzo Guarnieri.

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