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Gli indicatori della sostenibilità

Se volessimo definire brevemente gli indicatori della sostenibilità, potremmo dire che sono strumenti di contabilità ambientale in grado di “fotografare” la realtà esistente attraverso la semplificazione e l’interpretazione di dati di tipo scientifico disponibili sul sistema esaminato. Nel caso di una nazione, per esempio, i consumi dei propri cittadini, oppure la quantità di terreno agricolo disponibile, o le emissioni di CO2 derivanti dal sistema economico. Questi sono solo esempi di alcune voci che analizzate, quantificate e opportunamente rielaborate permettono di esprimere il livello di sostenibilità o insostenibilità di un sistema.

Come tutti gli strumenti di tipo scientifico, tali indicatori devono essere caratterizzati da estrema rigorosità scientifica che li renda credibili, ma anche da semplicità, trasparenza ed imparzialità, doti in grado di renderli fruibili e credibili anche ad un pubblico di formazione non tecnica.

Gli obiettivi degli indicatori della sostenibilità ambientale sono manifesti, e riguardano il monitoraggio dello stato dell’ambiente, la possibilità di definire scenari relativi ad una corretta gestione delle risorse o ad una riduzione dell’impatto antropico sugli equilibri del sistema terra, la capacità di prevedere problematiche ambientali altrimenti poco evidenti e, non da ultimo, supportare le politiche decisionali degli enti competenti ed informare in maniera semplice ed adeguata la popolazione (così che possa eventualmente partecipare in maniera consapevole al dibattito democratico di scelta e orientamento delle politiche nazionali o locali).

In molti casi gli indicatori della sostenibilità, anche molto rigorosi dal punto di vista scientifico, permettono di estendere la loro analisi ad aspetti di equità sociale ed economica. Vedremo in seguito il caso dell’impronta ecologica, in grado di mostrare chiaramente i limiti dell’attuale sistema economico occidentale dal punto di vista dell’equità intra-generazionale ed inter-generazionale, nonché i forti scompensi economici attuali a livello mondiale.

A cura di Alice Benessia, Maria Bucci, Simone Contu, Vincenzo Guarnieri.

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