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Il metabolismo socio-economico

Il metabolismo socio-economico è caratterizzato da flussi, ingenti ed in continua crescita, di materia ed energia legati alla realizzazione dei beni e dei servizi forniti. La globalizzazione dei mercati, le imprese multinazionali, la delocalizzazione del lavoro nelle aree economicamente e socialmente più convenienti, il maggior livello di dettaglio e specializzazione dei prodotti realizzati sono alcune fra le cause principali di questo fenomeno.

Per questa ragione negli ultimi anni è diventato sempre più importante trovare metodologie per la quantificazione di tali flussi e la descrizione di tali fenomeni. Sono quindi nati, in affiancamento ad indicatori di tipo economico, altri indicatori di tipo fisico o ambientale, in grado di descrivere in maniera più completa il sistema socio economico locale, nazionale e transnazionale. Ci soffermeremo successivamente su tali indicatori.

Per comprendere meglio il fenomeno proviamo a fare un esempio prendendo in considerazione la coltivazione di un prodotto agricolo. Tale attività implica conseguenze di tipo ambientale (appropriazione di terreno destinato alla produzione agricola), sociali (la condizione degli agricoltori, molto differente a seconda del paese in cui si consideri la produzione, il loro inserimento sociale, il loro grado di benessere), economiche (i prezzi ottenibili dalla produzione, gli stipendi dei lavoratori, il valore di mercato conseguente a fenomeni anche imprevedibili quali la siccità o i temporali). Una reale quantificazione del peso del nostro prodotto agricolo non può che prendere in considerazione tutti questi aspetti. E provare, oltre tutto, ad approfondirli: gli impatti ambientali saranno di tipo diretto (appropriazione di terreno per uso agricolo) ed indiretto (contributo al global warming determinato dall’uso di gasolio per la movimentazione dei mezzi meccanici), macroscopico (gestione dei residui vegetali non commerciabili) e microscopico (inquinamento della falda idrica conseguente all’uso di fertilizzanti e antiparassitari), sulla biodiversità (eliminazione di insetti e anfibi che non danneggerebbero le piante ma che non sopravvivono alle dosi di anti-parassitari utilizzati).

E poi ci saranno impatti di tipo economico dipendenti dalle scelte produttive fatte (uso di agricoltura intensiva ed industrializzata ovvero coltivazioni biologiche), di tipo sociale (considerazione dell’agricoltura nella scala sociale, condizione dei lavoratori, immigrazione e lavoro nero).

Tutto ciò permette di considerare il forte peso delle scelte che ognuno di noi può compiere, in grado di condizionare e determinare, pur se in piccola maniera, l’intero sistema descritto.

La contabilità ambientale, che andremo a descrivere, permette di focalizzare l’attenzione su alcuni di questi aspetti, quelli di carattere maggiormente tecnico/ambientale.

A cura di Alice Benessia, Maria Bucci, Simone Contu, Vincenzo Guarnieri.

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