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Principi della sostenibilità socio-ambientale

Emerge chiaramente, dalle analisi precedenti, come intorno alla problematica della sostenibilità ambientale vi sia molta ambiguità, difficilmente superabile nella gestione delle politiche di gestione regionale e locale. Risulta, infatti, molto difficile effettuare la distinzione fra capitale naturale e capitale prodotto dall’uomo (basti pensare a zone rimboschite o a laghi artificiali, piccoli ecosistemi di origine antropica che vengono reinseriti all’interno dell’ecosistema naturale).

Occorre quindi a questo proposito richiamare i due principi che formulò nel 1991 Herman Daly, esperto di un filone di studi definito come economia ecologica:

Principio del rendimento sostenibile: le risorse naturali devono essere consumate ad una velocità tale da permettere alla natura di ripristinarle.

In questa maniera si riesce ad evitarne l’esaurimento. Un esempio potrebbe essere lo sfruttamento delle foreste: supponendo di avere una foresta con 100 alberi che si accresce di 10 alberi/anno, il rendimento sostenibile consiste nello sfruttamento di solo questi 10 alberi/anno, in maniera da non intaccare il capitale naturale iniziale; nel caso in cui lo sfruttamento fosse superiore saremmo destinati all’esaurimento dell’intero patrimonio forestale a nostra disposizione.

Principio della capacità di assorbimento: i rifiuti devono essere prodotti ad una velocità compatibile con quella del loro assorbimento da parte dell’ecosistema, in modo da evitare pericolosi effetti d’accumulo.

Attualmente questo secondo principio non è assolutamente rispettato, e sarebbero necessari interventi mirati all’utilizzo di risorse alternative dal punto di vista energetico (in maniera da diminuire il tasso di CO2 che si libera nell’atmosfera in quantità decisamente superiori alla possibilità naturale di riassorbimento) e ad una riduzione dei consumi per quanto riguarda la produzione di rifiuti di qualsiasi genere.

Risulta chiara, da entrambi i principi, la necessità di definire dei limiti allo sfruttamento attuale delle risorse naturali, così come la valorizzazione di ogni comportamento, tecnologia, politica volta al riciclo, recupero e riuso dei materiali già utilizzati.

A cura di Alice Benessia, Maria Bucci, Simone Contu, Vincenzo Guarnieri.

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